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Name derivation:

Golden-brown little sphere (chryso-, -sphaerella).



Chrysosphaerella  Lauterborn 1896;  10 of 12 species descriptions are currently accepted taxonomically (Guiry and Guiry 2013).

Order Synurales;  Family Synuraceae



Spherical colonies with cells closely packed. Two thin silica spines per cell. Golden chloroplasts.  The habitat preference of two species, C. longispina (warm water, summer) and C. brevispina (cold water, winter) has been inferred (Siver and Hamer 1992).


Similar genera:

Synura colonies lack spines.


Freshwater plankton



Guiry, M.D. and G.M. Guiry  2013.  AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 31 July 2013.

Lauterborn, R.  1896.  Diagnosen neuer Protozoen aus dem Gebiete des Oberrheins.  Zoologischer Anzeiger 19: 14-18.

Nicholls, K.H., and D.E. Wujek  2003.  Chrysophycean Algae.  In:  Freshwater algae of North America.  Wehr, J.D., and R.G. Sheath (Eds.) (pp. 471-509).

Siver, P.A., and J.S. Hamer 1992.  Seasonal periodicity of Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae in a small New England lake:  Implications for paleolimnological research.  J. Phycol. 28:186-198.