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Most red algae are marine and benthic, although ~150 are reported in freshwater habitats, mainly in streams or rivers. Sheath (2003) lists 25 species of Batrachospermum, some of these the most widespread freshwater reds in North America.

The thermophile Cyanidium caldarum inhabitats hot springs, and is considered to be a red (Broadwater and Scott 1994).


Broadwater, S.T., and J.L. Scott 1994. Ultrastructurer of unicellular red algae. In: Evolutionary Pathways and Enigmatic Algae: Cyanidium caldarum (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells. J. Sechbach (Ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.(pp. 215-230).

Dawes, C.J., and A.C. Mathieson 2008. The Seaweeds of Florida. University Press of Florida. (592 pp.)

Sheath, R.G. 2003. Red Algae. In: Freshwater Algae of North America (Chapter 5). Wehr, J.D. and R.G. Sheath (editors). Academic Press.

Taylor, W.R. 1966. Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America. Univ. of Michigan Press, 3rd printing. (509 pp).